1. What is a semiconductor, a device that's so small, yet so essential to everyday life?

The term semiconductor is an abbreviated expression for a semiconductor integrated circuit, or computer chip. Semiconductors have many billions of elements (transistors, resistors, capacitors, diodes), all of which constitute an electrical circuit. These elements are arranged on a chip made of silicon—a semiconductor material that passes and stops electrical current.

In recent years, semiconductors have become even more highly integrated and are used in a wide variety of applications, from familiar devices such as PCs and smartphones to IoT-based products and services as well as large-scale digital infrastructures such as data centers. Semiconductors are also indispensable in the social implementation of new technologies that enrich the world, such as remote work, online events, AR and VR, and automated driving systems.